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劉山青

76年港大理科生,民運人士,曾在國內因支持民主而坐牢十載。退休後的生活,花1分鐘就可以說完,並非懶人包:每周有半天與老友打乒乓球,半天玩滑浪風帆。其他時間到友人的辦公室上網寫網誌,周而復始,假期與我無關。

劉山青網誌│當年和現今的分別,看空域設計

2015-12-23 23:23
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無論任何新機場,空域和航空程序的設計都是極之重要。張炳良至今還不肯向市民交代。

在當年的赤鱲角新國際機場的興建時,其工作是香港民航處聘請國際顧問公司做的。

華盛頓顧問集團(WCG)

華盛頓顧問集團(WCG)在1994年為當時興建的赤鱲角國際機場(CLK)設計空域。其工作包括一系列的航空交通控制(ATC)的技術安排。

當中包括新機場的4條跑道方向(南北跑道的東北方向和西南方向,Rwy07L,Rwy07R,Rwy25L,Rwy25R),符合國際民航組織(ICAO)的準確進場和落地程序。

華盛頓顧問集團以其設計的板塊設計分析工具(電腦程式)模擬香港的地勢和空域限制,設計離場程序,並根據國際民航組織要求防撞要求進行電腦模擬。

華盛頓顧問集團將近場空域分成版塊,對在途中、進場和離場航空圖設計以電腦模擬延後量度模型(SIMMOD)進行,並設計空域板塊。

華盛頓顧問集團為定翼和直升機設計了儀表航行和目視航行的程序。其目標是為赤鱲角國際機場設計獨立的進場和離場模式,以支持其長遠發展。

華盛頓顧問集團的最終工作成果是設計了所有的航空程序,和它們相關的航空圖、最低安全高度圖。它也為航空交通控制中心人員、和航空公司設計了管理手冊。

華盛頓顧問集團除了空域設計之外,還對航空交通控制員的訓練、地面滑行道設計、機場大綱計劃和購置導航系統等提供意見。(注一)

最後報告

從赤鱲角空域設計顧問集團在1994年12月15日交給香港民航局的最後報告中,我們看到它分為9部份。當中包括第3部的儀表進場(ILS)和復飛程序(missed approach);第4部的標準儀表進場路徑(STAR)和環飛等待(holding);第5部的標準儀表離場(SID);第6部的最低飛行高度圖。那就是說,確定了新機場的空域要求。

預算案

從88至92年的預算案中的民航局總目中,其第三項總目(objective 3)為管理和發展國際機場,分別開支為65.8、77.8、91.5和114.1百萬元。

它在91-92年預算案中表示,較上年度增加20.1%,因為外判出一批資本項目。

其在92-93年預算案將第三總目更改為,參與策劃新機場。在94-95年的預算案則再改為技術及策劃,預算費為136.9百萬。

當年預算案沒有披露顧問費用和招標過程。可見,我們看到民航局在空域問題上有很重要的角地,而且需要增加撥款。

後記

當年,英國人臨走時拋出玫瑰園計劃,引起社會強烈分化,受到中方責難。但我們至少看到它根據程序行事,不會如現今的,只要求我們相信。

(原圖為threerunwaysystem.com圖片)

注一
The Washington Consulting Group, Inc.
Aviation Group—Overview
Chek Lap Kok Airspace Design
Government of Hong Kong
Under a competitive contract award, The Washington Consulting Group (WCG) supported the Director of Civil Aviation, Hong Kong in development of transition requirements for the new Chek Lap Kok (CLK) Airport. This work involved a wide range of air traffic control (ATC) technical Tasks.
The work included design and development of precision approach and landing procedures to each of the four runways. These designs met the International Civil
Aviation Organization (ICAO) standards. We applied the ICAO collision risk model to each procedure to validate the metrics. We simultaneously designed departure procedures which were complicated by terrain intrusions and proximity of boundaries of other entities. Both of these two initial Tasks generated requirements for certain ATC equipment. During the development of the en route structure and the arrival and departure transitions, WCG utilized a computer-generated delay measurement simulation and model (SIMMOD) to produce animation of the air traffic and to assist in the design of sector boundaries.
Instrument and visual flight procedures were defined for both fixed and rotary wing aircraft. Our goal was to develop simultaneous independent approach and departure procedures that would facilitate long term traffic demands.
WCG’s final product included the production of all flight procedures and their associated charting, minimum safe altitude charts and other pertinent publications ready for publication. These deliverables were created in AutoCad and on electronic media. The final report included an Airspace Management Organizational Plan for ATC managers, controllers, and aviation users.
During the development processes we conducted coordination with all formal international aviation organizations and, in some instances, other ATC directorates.
Government of Hong Kong
As a subcontractor to The Ralph M. Parsons Company, WCG conducted a series of air traffic control and airport analyses of the Hong Kong TMA, Kai Tak Airport and the new Chek Lap Kok Airport. These studies involved:
• Examining the current Hong Kong Air Traffic Control (ATC) Training Program;
• Providing parameters of simulation of existing and planned airside capacity at the Kai Tak and Chek Lap Kok Airports;
• Evaluating risks of overflight and runway and taxiway separations versus SARPS standards for Kai Tak Airport and presenting capacity-enhancing improvements; and
• Reviewing and updating the Chek Lap Kok Airport Master Plan Consultancy.
Our review of the ATC Officer Training Program focused on identifying existing training objectives and defining additional or modified objectives to improve ATC operations and, thereby, enhance airport capacity. We examined current ATC procedures, reviewed curriculum and courseware, interviewed facility experts, and evaluated new training requirements resulting from the introduction of advanced technologies. After conducting this study, WCG prepared an ATC training status report that enumerated training objectives and requirements designed to increase controller skills and augment the capacity of the system.
The analysis of the Chek Lap Kok Master Plan focused on validating plans and projects involved in building the air traffic control system. In performing this analysis, WCG examined the technical demands on the system and evaluated whether the proposed system and air space configuration provide for adequate levels of safety and operational efficiency, given forecast traffic patterns. We also validated and recommended changes in system requirements and then updated cost estimates for purchasing and installing all ATC equipment: radar, radar displays, communications and navigation systems.

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分類:|發表於2015年12月23日 下午11:23

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