特朗普先聲奪人引無數游資競折腰 陳茂波不自量力低智傳媒偽造新聞|馮仁釗|缸湖內外

劉山青

76年港大理科生,民運人士,曾在國內因支持民主而坐牢十載。退休後的生活,花1分鐘就可以說完,並非懶人包:每周有半天與老友打乒乓球,半天玩滑浪風帆。其他時間到友人的辦公室上網寫網誌,周而復始,假期與我無關。

大陸的空管情況及雷神的命運|劉山青網誌

2016-12-22 23:30
字體: A A A

關於機場採用雷神空管系統,事源於2007年政府要求開設:

(a) 1 個民航處助理處長職位(首長級薪級第2 點)(110,000 元至116,800 元);

(b) 開設下述常額職位-1 個總航空交通管制主任職位(首長級薪級第1 點)(92,650 元至98,300 元);

以在未來數年推展多項重要措施,包括更換空管系統和興建民航處新總部。其民航處助理處長(新空管系統計劃)則由一隊41 名非首長級人員提供支援。

當年採用雷神3,並沒有因為之前用雷神1之故,雷神3的總評分比其他高,討論今次事件,有2份文件相當重要,它分別是2011年的挑戰標書裁定和今年1O月27日的事故調查報告,可惜冇人理會!

雷神搞了這麽多事,可能與雷神與美國國防部關係密切有關。大陸佬擔心其軍事資料外洩。雖然雷神的軟件是Unix.開放源頭,在軟件上很難玩嘢,但它測到珠江一帶空域調動,包括軍機。而且將來廣東5個機場會成為一體。可是入侵程序可完全隱藏在集成電路內和在特定時間啟動,始終令人擔心。

由2007開位採購一套新系統前後至今十年,舊的於2014已飽和,三跑將於8年後就要啟用。使用舊系統或重新招標,完全趕不上日程。你話點辦?有壓力團體希望籍此曲線拖延或拖垮興建三跑,但這完全是白痴,沒有新空管也不會令三跑停建!

單為採購,每年平均員工開支總額 (包括薪金和員工附帶福利開支)為3,384,000 元。此外, 實施這項建議須開設23 個非首長級職位, 這些職位按薪級中點估計的年薪開支為16,462,260 元, 而每年平均員工開支總額則為28,791,000 元。這筆公務員開支,十年來已花了納稅人約3億。

如此下去,雷神一定收皮。祖國科技日益猛進,搬北京機場個套來香港味得囉。再唔係,中國的專利全球最多,發明一套國產凌凌漆都得啦!但新系統才剛剛開始,目前出現的問題又不是死罪。如果我是大陸佬,除了搞次嚴重空中事故,完全冇計!

有網友指出,“相比Thales和Lockheed Martin,Raytheon在民用航空管理系統的名氣同使用都不及前兩者,但Raytheon是世界頂尖傳感及導彈系統生產商,AT3也不會差到那裏!”

中國的空管現狀

2016年全國民航工作會議暨航空安全工作會議召開,

─完善北京、上海、廣州等機場的國際樞紐功能等;

─2016年底實現95%的運輸機場具備PBN程式;

─加快推動“北斗”系統在民航的應用和驗證;

─做好C919等航空產品適航審定工作。

中國北斗衛星導航系統

─2000年年底建成北斗一號系統,向中國提供服務;

─2012年年底建成北斗二號系統,向亞太地區提供服務;

─2020年前後,建成北斗全球系統向全球提供服務。

民航局部署航空器追蹤監控體系建設下一步工作任務(2016-12-15)

─“落實習總書記“一個體系、三個能力”重要批示精神的主要工作之一,對於今後全國民航運行態勢掌握、流量管理系統、航班正常而言都是一項基礎性工作,功在當代,利在千秋,意義重大。”

廈門機場例子

─“民航空域已經非常擁堵,為了確保飛行順暢,兩架飛機之間的水平安全距離要在10公里以上,垂直安全高度要在300米以上。每架飛機落地前要與之前落地的飛機保持2分鐘的間隔,同一航線的飛機要保持10分鐘間隔。「按照時速900公里計算,一旦發生危險,留給我們指揮人員指揮的時間只有20秒。」”

落伍思想

在歐洲,8成以上的空域交給民航運用,但中國的空域管理還處於冷戰階段,民航空域十分狹窄,其民航空域只及美國的3分之1,因此,它寧願要地上的飛機等候(注2)。中國的民航的空中航道十分飽和,它的解決方法之一是設計一些單程路(注1 )。

航空交通管理系統

中國目前無法設計大型的航空交通管理系統,有的只有中小型,如:南京萊斯信息技術股份有限公司的《牧羊人-2000》,成都民航空管科技發展有限公司的AirNet/Linux-A,等約4至5套。它的北京、上海和廣東3大航空管制區 (FIA)依靠法國集團泰雷茲(Thales)的空管系統管理著全國60%的空中交通。

作為中國最大的空管系統供應商,泰雷茲已為中國空管提供了39套雷達系統,11套空管自動化系統(其中5套由華泰英翔公司(註北京中外合資企業)提供),550多套導航設備,以及廣播式自動相關監視系統(ADS-B)和多點定位系統等。它還賣飛機給中國。

事實上,法國佬已間接出讓了其技術。它與北京合營了一間北京華泰英翔空管技術有限公司,轉售其空管系統SkyNET-X,而Thales Australia Limited 則出售 EUROCAT-X,Indra Sistemas, S.A. (西班牙集團,投訴2011挑戰標書裁定)則出售了AIRCON 2100。雷神作為一上市公司,需要披露其潛在危險,但其ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS(注5) ,沒有表示其雷神3 Auto Track III Raytheon 有潛在危險,被踢走的可能。

今次事件可能是,一,商業利益;二,大陸佬想用泰雷茲,以實現其三方會議所說的統一放行(unified clearance)。

澳門簽署珠三角空管合作交流協議

2016-05-09

制定了《珠江三角洲地區空中交通管理規劃與實施方案》,逐步建立一個空域結構合理、保障設施完備、運行安排順暢的空中交通管制系統。

二零一一年八月三十一日澳門新聞稿

內地與港澳舉行珠三角空管會議,進一步細化並落實“珠三角地區空管規劃與實施方案”

三方討論了珠三角地區多機場統一放行系統的初步研究方案,該系統的建立目的,是理順區內離場航班的放行秩序、提高空域使用效率,從而減少各機場的延誤。由於在作出放行秩序的決策前,需先處理各機場的大量數據,完善的資訊互換平臺是統一放行系統(unified clearance)的基礎,為此,三方同意將就此制定詳細的工作計劃。

二零一二年六月十九日澳門新聞稿

審議了南珠三角地區統一氣壓基准面及度量衡標準的研究及論證、澳門國際機場進離場優化方案、以及信息網絡與多機場統一放行技術實施等多份工作文件。

and a unified measurement for air traffic management in southern PRD。….and the technical implementation of the unified clearance for multi-airports and so on.

這裡所說的統一放行技術與大陸的二份專利相關(注6,注7)(無怪乎,大陸專利全球第一)。它所說的是,多機場協同放行系統航班排序方法。

既然大陸佬的國策是將港澳和廣東第五個機場統一,全面使用泰雷茲技術可能是大勢所趨,更加方便。

14億再加一個副處長及一隊傻瓜公務員採購隊的十年人工,加埋通漲都唔夠20億,對機場項目來說,是個細數。當年興建二號客運大樓都要28億,後來還準備2019年全面封閉並拆卸,倒錢落海都係咁啦。

算數啦,它不給我們《牧羊人-2000》改良版已經算是體恤民情!筆者已被人說是 offensive,再一次亂噏都唔怕啦!

參考

China Air Navigation & Air Traffic Control System Modernization Project (I) (II) (III)

Report Date: February 2003

https://www.jica.go.jp/english/our_work/evaluation/oda_loan/post/2003/pdf/2-04_full.pdf

附注

注一

New air routes set to alleviate congestion

By Zhao Lei (China Daily)

Updated: 2015-04-08 06:54

Nation is expected to handle more than 10 million flights in 2017, official says

China aims to handle its serious air traffic congestion and flight delays by opening 10 one-way air passages, senior civil aviation officials said.

“Over the past 10 years, the number of flights using China’s airspace has continued to increase 10 percent year-on-year, but our airspace that can be used by civil airlines is only one-third of that in the United States and the number of our air traffic controllers is about half of that of the US,” said Che Jinjun, director of the Civil Aviation Administration of China’s air traffic management bureau.

The limited airspace and shortage of air traffic professionals have resulted in severe delays, he added, noting that under the current airspace management mechanism, one feasible solution is to optimize current flight routes.

Wang Zhiqing, deputy head of the Civil Aviation Administration, said the nation’s air traffic management system is expected to handle more than 10 million flights in 2017.

“The current air traffic management system makes it very difficult to spare a large area of airspace for airlines, so we have to make the best use of the existing resources,” he added.

Che said: “We plan to soon open 10 one-way air passages that cover air links between Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou. Within the coming three to five years, we will adjust major flight routes across the country.”

The Civil Aviation Administration will also negotiate with the Chinese military to open more routes for destinations that have busy air transport, according to Che.

A one-way air passage allows commercial aircraft to travel to and return from a destination in two separate air lanes, which are usually called a one-way route, instead of the current two-way routes in which pilots have to adjust altitude to ensure that aircraft in all directions can fly safely, said the administration.

The CAAC opened the Guangzhou-Lanzhou Air Passage on Thursday, saying the move would create a large-capacity air channel between Guangzhou, capital of Guangdong province, and Lanzhou, Gansu’s provincial capital.

The passage’s opening would benefit about 400 domestic flights each day while facilitating trips to or from 32 airports in seven provincial regions such as Hunan and Chongqing as well as the Hong Kong and Macao special administrative regions, the administration said.

The Guangzhou-Lanzhou Air Passage is the third such air channel in China, following the Beijing-Kunming and Beijing-Guangzhou passages.

The Beijing-Kunming Air Passage was formed in December 2013 to facilitate more than 460 domestic flights at 54 airports in nine provincial regions. The Beijing-Guangzhou passage was established in February to better serve flights along the country’s coastal areas.

Zhao Yifei, a professor specializing in air traffic management at Civil Aviation University of China, said the two-way route system must be changed or it would continue to hinder the civil aviation sector’s development.

“The Civil Aviation Administration has to optimize the use of the limited airspace, so the one-way route is a very reasonable choice for it,” he said, explaining that the creation of more one-way routes will enable airlines to open new flights and reduce the flying distance between busy airports, thus saving costs on fuel.

注2

Holding is not evidence for ATC control computer problem. All major cities in the world require holding. 5-10mins holding has been a norm for more than 10years. In bad weather condition it could be worse. Holding in China is less since they have more restrictive flow control and aircrafts are delayed on ground instead of holding in the air

STARs are normally longer routes and some airports actually only use that for radio failure procedures. Normally ATC will try to vector for shorter routes for more expeditious arrivals

注3

OVERVIEW

Thales provides innovative solutions for China’s infrastructures (backbone for the country’s growth). With more than 30 years’ development in China, Thales has been already a trusted partner for Chinese aviation and urban rail transportation industries. In China, Thales today employs 1300 employees, 95% of the staff being of Chinese nationality.

Thales’ strategy is to boost its local presence partnering with local players. In China, Thales is developing through local Joint Ventures.

Thales develops Innovation Hubs around the world. These Hubs serve as structures for collaborative innovation and combine new design methods, simulation tools and visualizations in order to co-create a truly differentiated offer with ‘customer-users’, ultimately designing better products. In June 2014, Thales inaugurated an Innovation Hub in Hong Kong. A true incubator of ideas for academic, government and industry representatives, the Hong Kong Innovation Hub will focus on the concept of Smart Cities, working specifically in the transport and security domains. In 2016, Thales is developing a new Innovation Hub in its Beijing office focusing on aerospace and signaling systems for railways.

To prepare the future, relations with Universities and Research Centers are key. To that end, Thales has developed several academic partnerships in China.

KEY FIGURES

30

A presence for over 30 years

1300

1300 employees to date in China

4 key Joint Ventures and strategic partners

OVERVIEW

Thales is recognised as a key partner for aerospace solutions serving a wide range of customers.

HIGHLIGHTS

Across 2016 Thales has consolidated its position as the avionics component supplier of choice in China. The Group has signed contracts to equip avionics components on over 400 Boeing and Airbus, mainly single aisle aircraft, across multiple Chinese airlines.

In 2016, Thales has been selected by Hainan Airlines to equip A330 fleet with Thales’s latest AVANT IFE systems.

In 2016, Thales and its joint venture BEST in China have signed a contract to automate the terminal manoeuvring area, area control space and operations at Beijing Capital International Airport and the new Beijing Daxing International Airport.

The TopDeck helicopter avionics suite is onboard the Sikorsky S-76D. Over 40 are flying in China.

Across 2016, Thales has consolidated its position as the Head-Up-Display (HUD) provider of choice in China. The Thales HUD system has been selected on over 130 aircraft across the year.

AVIONICS

Thales provides its customers with a full range of equipment, on board electronics, avionic suites and flight control systems, navigation, communication and surveillance designed both for aircraft and helicopters. Today, Thales is a first-tier partner of the world’s leading manufacturers, including Airbus, ATR, Boeing, Bombardier, Gulfstream and Sukhoi. Thales provides its avionics solutions to Air China, China Southern, China Eastern, HNA Aviation companies and other regional airliners. If you fly in China, Thales is involved.

AIR TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT

Thales brings expertise around Air Traffic Management (ATM), where the group ranks as undisputed world leader. The Group’s mission is to bring solutions and services – both in the air and on the ground – to support air traffic controllers, airports and civil aviation authorities in meeting the challenges of growth, safety, economic and environmental performance, security and passenger comfort.

The Group also offers a comprehensive and technically advanced range of navigation solutions, using ground based conventional and satellite air navigation equipment, trusted by over 170 countries worldwide. To offer a unique global surveillance capability, Thales combines radar and non-radar technologies to provide its customers with the most adapted surveillance solution. In December 2014, Thales signed a contract to supply civil radars across China mainland.

注4

泰雷茲攜手華泰英翔讓北京機場空管更安全、更高容、更高效

September 14, 2016 02:35 AM Eastern Daylight Time 香港–(BUSINESS WIRE)–(美國商業資訊)–

“在這五十多年中,泰雷茲與空管局共同合作,保證中國民航服務安全高效地運行。為支持航空運輸的不斷增長,泰雷茲將繼續為中國提供創新型技術,幫助空管局解決當下和未來面臨的各種挑戰。”

泰雷茲與華泰英翔公司將為北京兩個主要機場進行終端管制區、區域管制空域和運營的自動化升級。

泰雷茲TopSky空管系統及進離港排序輔助決策系統(MAESTRO)將幫助安全增加進離港航班數量。泰雷茲是中國最大的空管系統供應商,管理著中國60%的空中交通。“在這五十多年中,泰雷茲與空管局共同合作,保證中國民航服務安全高效地運行。為支持航空運輸的不斷增長,泰雷茲將繼續為中國提供創新型技術,幫助空管局解決當下和未來面臨的各種挑戰。”

Jean Marc Alias, Thales Vice President in charge of ATM Business

泰雷茲空中交通管理業務副總裁Jean Marc Alias

泰雷茲與華泰英翔公司共同助力中國民航局空中交通管理局,幫助實現中國空域的現代化升級改造,提升安全保障能力,加強空管運力,提高運行效率。

泰雷茲聯手北京華泰英翔空管技術有限公司(泰雷茲與民航空管技術裝備發展有限公司的合資公司)共同與中國民航總局華北空中交通管理局簽訂合同,將幫助北京首都國際機場和北京新機場實現終端管制區、區域管制空域和運營的自動化。

據國際航空運輸協會預測,未來二十年中,中國航空的客運量將在目前4.4億人次的基礎上增加7.58億人次。截至2034年,年客流量將達到12億人次。為支援這一增長,中國開始著手進行機場建設,提升效率,安全增加進離港航班數量。作為世界上應用最廣泛的空管自動化系統,泰雷茲TopSky空管系統此次也將無縫接入到北京區管中心。這一先進的系統具有更強大的冗餘能力,包括完整的備份飛行計畫處理、飛行計畫的同步、以及多感測器處理及預警,保證空中交通管制在主用系統癱瘓或維修期間的持續運行。

泰雷茲全集成式進離港管理系統MAESTRO(進離港排序輔助決策系統)將對機場和空域的交通流量進行排序,保持秩序穩定。MAESTRO將實現區域管制、進近管制和塔臺系統之間的無縫集成,從而使所有管制員共用排序資訊,協同決策機場配置的變更,例如ATFM(先進的空中交通流量管理)管制次數。此外,這一系統還能夠將指定要求的飛機延誤的吸收整合到磁區顯示,從而提高流量排序效率,減少空中等候時間。另外,先進的跑道分配處理能夠提高航空公司的運營效率,減少滑行時間。

此次現代化升級計畫將於2019年完工。該專案是泰雷茲攜手空管局共建中國新一代空管系統承諾的又一兌現。中國使用泰雷茲的空管系統管理著全國60%的空中交通。作為中國最大的空管系統供應商,泰雷茲已為中國空管提供了39套雷達系統,11套空管自動化系統(其中5套由華泰英翔公司提供),550多套導航設備,以及廣播式自動相關監視系統(ADS-B)和多點定位系統等。

已在全球部署共約360套TopSky 空管解決方案,7000套導航設備,680套雷達,1800套廣播式自動相關監視系統/多點定位系統的地面站,全球共有超過16000名管制員使用泰雷茲解決方案。

約占世界範圍三分之二的飛機在起飛、航行以及降落過程中使用泰雷茲的系統。

重塑全球空中交通管理的三大核心專案的領導者:歐洲單一天空計畫(SESAR)的領軍工業企業;美國新一代航空運輸系統NextGen的主要技術合作夥伴;以及國際民航組織航空系統組塊升級(ASBU)計畫的重要參與者。泰雷茲將把這些計畫中的所有演進整合至其產品路線圖。

關於泰雷茲

泰雷茲是世界領先的高科技集團,業務遍及全球航空、交通、防務和安全領域。泰雷茲在56個國家擁有62,000名員工,2015年銷售額為140億歐元。集團擁有22,000名工程師和研發人員,在設備、系統和服務的設計和部署方面的能力首屈一指,能夠滿足客戶最複雜的安全需求。泰雷茲業務遍及五大洲,在全球擁有眾多分支機搆,能夠與世界各地的客戶密切合作。

注5

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

__________________________________________________________

FORM 10-K

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES

EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2015 or

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES

EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from to

Commission File Number 1-13699

__________________________________________________________

RAYTHEON COMPANY

ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS

This Form 10-K and the information we are incorporating by reference contain forward-looking statements within the meaning of federal securities laws, including information regarding our financial outlook, future plans, objectives, business prospects, products and services, trends and anticipated financial performance including with respect to our liquidity and capital resources; our bookings and backlog; our pension expense and funding, including our FAS/CAS pension adjustments for 2016 and future years and other pension contributions; the impact of new accounting pronouncements; our expected tax payments for 2016; our unrecognized tax benefits; the impact and outcome of audits and legal and administrative proceedings, claims, investigations, commitments and contingencies; the impact of acquisitions; and the impact of changes in fair value of our reporting units; as well as information regarding domestic and international defense spending, budgets and business practices.

You can identify these statements by the fact that they include words such as “will,” “believe,” “anticipate,” “expect,”“estimate,” “intend,” “plan,” or variations of these words, or similar expressions. These forward-looking statements are not statements of historical facts and represent only our current expectations regarding such matters. These statements inherently involve a wide range of known and unknown uncertainties. Our actual actions and results could differ materially from what is expressed or implied by these statements. Specific factors that could cause such a difference include, but are not limited to, those set forth below and other important factors disclosed previously and from time to time in our other filings with the SEC.

Given these factors, as well as other variables that may affect our operating results, you should not rely on forward-looking statements, assume that past financial performance will be a reliable indicator of future performance, or use historical trends to anticipate results or trends in future periods. We expressly disclaim any obligation or intention to provide updates to the forward-looking statements and the estimates and assumptions associated with them.

We depend on the U.S. government for a substantial portion of our business, and changes in government defense spending and priorities could have consequences on our financial position, results of operations and business. In 2015, U.S. government sales, excluding foreign military sales, accounted for approximately 68% of our total net sales. Our revenues from the U.S. government largely result from contracts awarded to us under various U.S. government programs, primarily defense-related programs with the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), as well as a broad range of programs with the U.S. Intelligence Community and other departments and agencies. The funding of our programs is subject to the overall U.S. government policies, budget and appropriation decisions and processes which are driven by numerous factors, including geo-political events, macroeconomic conditions, and the ability of the U.S. government to enact relevant legislation, such as appropriations bills and accords on the debt ceiling.

In recent years, U.S. government appropriations have been affected by larger U.S. government budgetary issues and related legislation. In 2011, Congress enacted the Budget Control Act of 2011 (BCA), which established specific limits on annual appropriations for fiscal years (FY) 2012–2021. Pursuant to the BCA, which was amended by the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012, the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2013 and the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015 (BBA), the FY 2013 DoD budget was reduced by 7.8% as compared to FY 2012, and the DoD budget remained essentially flat for FY 2014 and 2015. While the BBA provides for stability and modest growth to the DoD budget through FY 2017, future spending levels are uncertain. In addition, in recent years the U.S. government has been unable to complete its budget process before the end of its fiscal year, resulting in both a governmental shut-down and Continuing Resolutions to extend sufficient funds only for U.S. government agencies to continue operating. Additionally, while the BBA eliminates the debt ceiling through FY 2017, the national debt has recently threatened to reach the statutory debt ceiling, and such an event in future years could result in the U.S. government defaulting on its debts.

As a result, defense spending levels are difficult to predict beyond the near-term due to numerous factors, including the external threat environment, future governmental priorities and the state of governmental finances. Significant changes in defense spending or changes in U.S. government priorities, policies and requirements could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition or liquidity.

Our financial results largely are dependent on our ability to perform on our U.S. government contracts, which are subject to uncertain levels of funding and timing, as well as termination. Our financial results could also be affected by development delays, cost overruns or product failures in connection with these contracts.

Our financial results largely are dependent on our performance under our U.S. government contracts. While we are involved in numerous programs and are party to thousands of U.S. government contracts, the termination of one or more of such contracts, or the occurrence of delays, cost overruns and product failures in connection with one or more large contracts, could negatively impact our results of operations, financial condition or liquidity. Furthermore, we can give no assurance that we would be awarded new U.S. government contracts to offset the revenues lost as a result of termination of any of our contracts.

U.S. government contracts generally permit the government to terminate the contract, in whole or in part, without prior notice, at the U.S. government’s convenience or for default based on performance. If one of our contracts is terminated for convenience, we would generally be entitled to payments for our allowable costs and would receive some allowance for profit on the work performed. If one of our contracts is terminated for default, we would generally be entitled to payments for our work that has been accepted by the U.S. government. A termination arising out of our default could expose us to liability and have a negative impact on our ability to obtain future contracts and orders. Furthermore, on contracts for which we are a subcontractor and not the prime contractor, the U.S. government could terminate the prime contract for convenience or otherwise, irrespective of our performance as a subcontractor.

The funding of U.S. government programs is subject to congressional appropriations, which are made on a fiscal year basis even for multi-year programs. Consequently, programs are often only partially funded initially and may not continue to be funded in future years. In addition, regular appropriation bills may be delayed, which may result in revenue collection delays or delays in our contract performance due to lack of funds to procure related products and services. Under certain circumstances, we may use our own funds to meet our customer’s desired delivery dates or other requirements. Furthermore, if appropriations for one of our programs become unavailable, or are reduced or delayed, the U.S. government may terminate our contract or subcontract under such program.

注6

一種惡劣天氣下多機場協同放行系統航班排序方法

CN 104299454 B

摘要

本發明提供一種惡劣天氣下多機場協同放行系統航班排序方法,用於空中交通流量管理系統中的戰術流量管理階段,在惡劣天氣下,通過把惡劣天氣因素轉化為約束條件,根據這些約束條件進行航班排序放行排序過程中,給參與放行的各管制單位、機場、航空公司提供統一的放行序列,以實現空域資源的最大利用,提高空管在惡劣天氣下的運行保障效率,確保空中交通安全。

國際專利分類號 G08G5/00

2015年1月21日 C06 Publication

2015年2月18日 C10 Entry into substantive examination

2016年4月20日 C14 Grant of patent or utility model

注7

多機場協同放行系統航班排序決策方法

CN 103426331 B

https://www.google.com/patents/CN103426331B?cl=zh

(圖片來源:蘋果日報)

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分類:|發表於2016年12月22日 下午11:30

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