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劉山青

76年港大理科生,民運人士,曾在國內因支持民主而坐牢十載。退休後的生活,花1分鐘就可以說完,並非懶人包:每周有半天與老友打乒乓球,半天玩滑浪風帆。其他時間到友人的辦公室上網寫網誌,周而復始,假期與我無關。

分散式帳本技術白皮書|劉山青網誌

2017-6-21 22:31
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香港的應科院接受金管局委託,於去年11月發佈了《分散式帳本技術白皮書》,預期在今年下半年發表第二份白皮書。

在第一期白皮書裡,應科院與匯豐銀行,渣打銀行,中國銀行(香港),恒生銀行及東亞銀行, 探索將分散式帳本技術(DLT)應用於銀行業的一系列的概念驗證 [Proof-of-Concepts] 。當中的概念驗證有:抵押貸款申請,貿易融資和數字身份管理(註一)。本文只討論抵押貸款,從中了解DLT的概念。

抵押貸款申請

目前的按揭貸款申請(按揭)流程耗時、費力、手工密集、以紙為基礎。 它要求多方參與,例如抵押申請人(業主),銀行(融資來源),財產估價評估的測量師(處理所有法律資料),信用局(TransUnion )和土地註冊處(其中保留最新的財產所有權清單)。

抵押貸款申請的主要三個過程是物業估值,物業所有權驗證和計算按揭。

物業估值

當業主向銀行A 申請抵押貸款時,銀行A要求物業測量師提供估值報告。銀行有責任保存估值報告兩年。(註二)

現時做法的問題是,1.報告是印刷品,2.電子版不標準化。DLT的好處是:1.標準化整個行業的數據格式,並確保流程完整性,2.提高抵押貸款申請流程的效率,3.改進估值報告的安全保護,令未經授權的更改很困難,4.可以節省物理存儲空間。

在 DLT模式中,物業測量師將估值報告數字化。在物業測量師批核後,交給銀行A,這些數據將提交給DLT網絡與其他銀行共享。

這樣,若物業再按,其他銀行在得到授權後,可得到相關資料(市場價值,物業地址,物業參考號,面積,完成月份和完成年份,估價日期,完整報告哈希值hash value,估值公司名稱,以及物業類型)。

財產所有權驗證

銀行批准抵押貸款申請時需要財產所有權驗證。當事務律師行完成按揭交易後,它會通知土地註冊處保存及更新。但在現行制度下,土地註冊處需要40天的時間更新。這麼長的交付時間可以讓詐騙有機可乘。

銀行在DLT下,可更快地知道財產所有權和抵押貸款信息的變動。加入DLT網絡的銀行越多,抵押記錄的準確性和完整性就越好。

按揭計算

銀行做按揭時,要向所有第三方機構查詢該物業己按了多少次,這需要最少3個工作日。 抵押工作組建議,抵押契約信息可以在DLT網絡中共享,從而提高業務流程的效率和準確性。

結論

DLT平台是一種不可變,透明和防篡改的方式。採用DLT進行抵押貸款申請程序可以促進紙質文件的數字化,並為抵押貸款申請留下完整的審計追踪,節省人力,降低人手錯誤風險。它還為未來的調查和審計提供了透明和按時間順序的日誌。數據格式的標準化可以幫助行業加強記錄管理並簡化業務流程。

註一

As commissioned by the HKMA, ASTRI is working with a number of banks and related industry players in Hong Kong, including HSBC, Standard Chartered Bank, the Bank of China (Hong Kong), Hang Seng Bank, and the Bank of East Asia, to explore the feasibility of applying DLT to a few sub use cases in the banking industry. Following discussions with the participating banks, the HKMA and ASTRI decided to conduct proof-of-concept work in three areas: mortgage loan application, trade finance, and digital identity management.
For each area, an industry working group has been established to discuss the proof-of concept plan, formulate the scope and design of the proof-of-concept work, and carry out the proof-of concept work in the HKMA-ASTRI Innovation Hub. As of the end of October 2016, a DLT prototype for carrying out property valuations for use in the mortgage loan application had been built to the final stage, and testing carried out. With regard to the other two areas (trade finance and digital identity management), the proof-of-concept work is relatively more complex and requires further study to finalise the best operating models. Although the progress of each sub use case varies, we would like to take this opportunity to share their current statuses in terms of the DLT solutions proposed, the lessons learned, the experience of implementing them, along with benefits and recommendations. Since all three sub use cases require more time for the proof-of-concept work to be completed, further updates on each one will be provided in the next stage of this research project, sometime next year. In the appendix, we have also included a number of sharing contributed by addressing the application of DLT to mortgage-backed securities (MBS) and trade finance, to provide different angles on the application of DLT.

註二

11.1 Proof-of-Concept – Mortgage Loan Application
Introduction

A mortgage is an essential financing tool that provides capital resources to a mortgage applicant (mortgagor) for the purpose of purchasing a property, or obtaining financing by using the property as collateral. As mortgage loans normally involve a large loan amount and a long tenor, banks are obligated to perform sufficient due diligence when processing mortgage loan applications.

The current mortgage loan application process is time-consuming, laborious, manually-intensive and paper-based. It also requires the participation of multiple parties, such as the mortgage applicant (the property owner), banks (sources of financing), surveyors (for property valuation assessment), solicitors (to handle all legal materials), a credit bureau (i.e. TransUnion), and the Land Registry (which maintains an up-to-date list of property title ownership).

Together with five participating banks, the HKMA and ASTRI have formed a mortgage DLT working group to explore the possibility of applying DLT to the mortgage loan application process.

11.1.1 Sub use case 1: The property valuation
A property valuation report evaluates the market value of the property in question. When a property buyer obtains a mortgage loan from a bank, the bank requires a valuation report from a surveyor. This acts as a safeguard to ensure that the mortgage loan granted is an adequate percentage of the market valuation of the property, and that the bank will be able to recover the outstanding amount if the mortgage is unpaid. In the current business process, banks are obligated to obtain and properly keep the physical valuation reports for two years.
To streamline the process of obtaining a valuation report from the surveyors, ASTRI has developed a DLT prototype to digitise the manual and paper-based process involved. The DLT prototype is able to capture the key data and hash of the digitised valuation reports to the distributed ledgers and store it there, thus increasing the efficiency and security of the process

註三

Sub use case 2: Property ownership verification

The information required for a bank to approve a mortgage loan application includes property ownership and mortgage count information. In the current process, this information is maintained in the Land Registry according to the Land Registry Ordinance, and extra procedures and processing time are needed both to obtain and to update it. According to the information provided by the banks participating in the working group, it can take up to 40 days from the date a property transaction is completed to the date when the ownership information is updated in the Land Registry.

This relatively long period of time is due to the need for manual handling of a number of processes, including document handling and delivery, and the input of information into, and updating of, the computer system. This long lead time can create opportunities for fraud.

Under the arrangement proposed by the working group, banks would be able to store mortgage deeds and title deeds data on the distributed ledger, enabling participating banks to maintain up-to-date records of property ownership and mortgage information. The more banks that join the DLT network, the better the mortgage records will be in terms of accuracy and completeness.

註四

11.1.3 Sub use case 3: Mortgage count

As in sub use case 2, mortgage count information takes up to 3 working days to be obtained from a third party institution, one that acts as an agency requesting mortgage count information from all of the banks in Hong Kong. The Mortgage Working Group has suggested that mortgage deed information could be shared across a DLT network, thus improving the efficiency and accuracy of the business process

Enhancements in mortgage count checking

The title ownership of a property shows the rights of an individual or an organisation to manage a property, including selling it to others, collateralising it for financing (a mortgage), etc.
Nowadays, banks rely on the Land Registry’s records, in which the updating of any ownership transfer information can take up to 40 days to complete.
The adoption of DLT could help reduce the time lag associated with the title deed update by allowing banks to update the registration directly on the distributed ledgers.
The updated records could thus be made available almost in real time for verification by banks within the mortgage application process.

註五

11.1.4 Conclusions – Benefits and challenges Benefits of DLT

A DLT platform provides an immutable, transparent and tamper-proof way for all stakeholders of instantly distributing digitised documents among all trusted parties. Adopting DLT for the mortgage loan application process could facilitate the digitising of paper documents and leave a complete audit trail for the mortgage loan application, result in a significant saving of manpower and storage space, as well as lowering the risk of manual errors. Transaction records can be placed in the DLT network within a very short period of time, thus dramatically reducing document collection and delivery times, from days to minutes. It also provides a transparent and chronological log for future investigation and auditing. In addition, digitising documents can reduce the need for manual data input and thus minimise the chance of human error. Moreover, the standardisation of the data format can help industry stakeholders enhance their record management procedures and streamline their business workflow.

(圖片來源:蘋果日_)

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