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香港革新論

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一文破解外國干預論:國際社會是香港自治「合理合法」的持份者|香港革新論

2019-9-11 22:30
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國際社會是香港自治「合理合法」的持份者。
International community is a legitimate stakeholder in Hong Kong’s autonomy.

合理,是因為香港自1841年起就是自由港,外國有大量投資、企業、僑民在港,有利益就是持份者、越多利益就是越重要的持份者。中美在港有最多利益,所以香港事實上就是「中美共治」。這是常識。
In terms of interests, Hong Kong has been a free port since 1841, with the presence of many foreign investments, corporations, and expatriates. A stakeholder is one who has interests; and a stakeholder who has more interests will be more important. China and U.S. have largest interests in Hong Kong, so Hong Kong is under de facto “China-US co-rule”. This is common sense.

合法,是因為香港自治建基於《中英聯合聲明》這條國際條約,而《基本法》下香港不少的自治權(例如單獨關稅區、船舶登記、航空管理、參加國際組織、簽訂國際協議、發行特區護照),都必須獲國際承認才能運作;而主權移交前後,港府與各國簽訂了數百條的雙邊協定(民航協定、保護投資協定、移交逃犯協定、自貿協定等等),這些協定的前提是一國兩制香港自治;還有部分國家(美國和中華民國台灣)已制定涉港之國內法。因此,國際社會完全可按相關法律,介入香港自治。
In terms of legality, Hong Kong’s autonomy is built upon an international treaty, the Sino-British Joint Declaration, and many of its autonomous powers under the Basic Law could only be functioned properly with international recognition (e.g. separate customs territory, shipping system, aviation system, joining international organizations, signing international agreements and issuing HKSAR passports); Before and after the handover, the Hong Kong government signed hundred of bilateral agreements with different countries (e.g. Air Services Agreements, Investment Protection Agreements, Surrender of Fugitive Offenders Agreements, Free Trade Agreements), which are all based upon Hong Kong’s autonomy under the OCTS model; also some countries (U.S. and ROC Taiwan) have already enacted domestic laws with regard to Hong Kong. Thus, international community can always engage in Hong Kong’s autonomy according to such laws.

這就是為何學術文獻,會把香港歸類為「國際自治政體」。以往,香港的「國際共治」特性並不明顯,一是港府雖不民主,卻大致能維持自由和法治;二是自由世界對中國實行綏靖政策,避免介入香港自治。今天,這兩個條件已不存在。
All these are the reasons why Hong Kong has been classified as an “internationalized autonomy” in literature. In the past, the need for “international co-governance” was not obvious because: first, the Hong Kong government is undemocratic but largely respects freedom and rule of law; second, the Free World adopts an appeasement policy toward China, restraining from directly involving in Hong Kong’s autonomy. Today, these two conditions no longer exist.

無論北京和港府是否喜歡,香港自治一直都是國際化,也只會越來越國際化。事實上,一個自稱對世界開放的國際食堂,就必須歡迎國際顧客點評,找出一套讓國際顧客滿意的管理模式。做不到,人家大可不來;而沒有國際顧客,結果就是中港攬炒吧。
No matter Beijing and Hong Kong government like it or not, Hong Kong’s autonomy is always internationalized, and it will only be more internationalized in future. In fact, for an international food court claiming to open itself to the world, it must welcome the comments from customers around the world, and also develop a management model that satisfies global customers. Failing to do this, global customers can always refuse to come; and without global customers, the result is “If Hong Kong burns, China burns with us”.

(撰文:《香港革新論》主編方志恒)

▋延伸閱讀 Further reading
※各國在港的利益 Foreign countries’ interests in Hong Kong
投資Investment:
https://www.censtatd.gov.hk/hkstat/sub/sp260.jsp…
企業corporations:
https://www.censtatd.gov.hk/hkstat/sub/sp360.jsp…
https://www.censtatd.gov.hk/hkstat/sub/sp360.jsp…
※《基本法》下必須獲國際承認才能運作的香港自治權 Hong Kong’s autonomous powers under the Basic Law which could only be functioned properly with international recognition
https://www.basiclaw.gov.hk
第一百一十六條:香港特別行政區為單獨的關稅地區。
Article 116:The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall be a separate customs territory.
第一百二十五條:香港特別行政區經中央人民政府授權繼續進行船舶登記,並根據香港特別行政區的法律以” 中國香港” 的名義頒發有關證件。
Article 125:The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall be authorized by the Central People’s Government to continue to maintain a shipping register and issue related certificates under its legislation, using the name “Hong Kong, China”.
第一百二十九條:香港特別行政區繼續實行原在香港實行的民用航空管理制度,並按中央人民政府關於飛機國籍標誌和登記標誌的規定,設置自己的飛機登記冊。
Article 129:The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall continue the previous system of civil aviation management in Hong Kong and keep its own aircraft register in accordance with provisions laid down by the Central People’s Government concerning nationality marks and registration marks of aircraft.
第一百五十一條:香港特別行政區可在經濟、貿易、金融、航運、通訊、旅遊、文化、體育等領域以”中國香港”的名義,單獨地同世界各國、各地區及有關國際組織保持和發展關係,簽訂和履行有關協議。
Article 151:The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region may on its own, using the name “Hong Kong, China”, maintain and develop relations and conclude and implement agreements with foreign states and regions and relevant international organizations in the appropriate fields, including the economic, trade, financial and monetary, shipping, communications, tourism, cultural and sports fields.
第一百五十四條:中央人民政府授權香港特別行政區政府依照法律給持有香港特別行政區永久性居民身份證的中國公民簽發中華人民共和國香港特別行政區護照,給在香港特別行政區的其他合法居留者簽發中華人民共和國香港特別行政區的其他旅行證件。上述護照和證件,前往各國和各地區有效,並載明持有人有返回香港特別行政區的權利。
Article 154:The Central People’s Government shall authorize the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region to issue, in accordance with law, passports of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China to all Chinese citizens who hold permanent identity cards of the Region, and travel documents of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China to all other persons lawfully residing in the Region. The above passports and documents shall be valid for all states and regions and shall record the holder’s right to return to the Region.
第一百五十五條:中央人民政府協助或授權香港特別行政區政府與各國或各地區締結互免簽證協議。
Article 155:The Central People’s Government shall assist or authorize the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region to conclude visa abolition agreements with foreign states or regions.
※港府與各國簽訂的雙邊協定 Bilateral agreements signed between Hong Kong government and different countries
https://www.doj.gov.hk/eng/laws/treaties.html
※已制定涉港國內法之國家 Countries that have already enacted domestic laws with regard to Hong Kong
美國-香港政策法 US-Hong Kong Policy Act
https://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml…
中華民國台灣《香港澳門關係條例》 ROC Taiwan “Laws and Regulations Regarding Hong Kong & Macao Affairs”
https://law.moj.gov.tw/ENG/LawClass/LawAll.aspx…

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